Gluten Free Grains – Products, Benefits, Replacements, Ingredients


A piece of cake on a plate

Gluten refers to the combined gliadin (prolamin) and glutenin (glutelin) fractions of wheat in grain processing. Consumer expectations have pushed the food sector to alter and improve gluten-free grains compositions and processing procedures constantly.

Gluten protein has unique structure-building properties that are useful in food preparation. Gluten is essentially the Latin equivalent of “glue,” hence these structure-building characteristics are also reflected in the language. When gluten in wheat flour is appropriately hydrated and mixed, it creates a three-dimensional protein network. 

Gluten-Free Grains Products

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According to global market statistics, gluten-free product sales are expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate of 10.4 percent between 2015 and 2020 [5]. Consumer demands rightly continue to impact the food industry and gluten-free labeling regulations as the clinical use and popularity of the gluten-free diet grows. The European Union Regulation 609/2013 established standards for gluten-free grains composition and labeling requirements in 2013. These rules ensure that gluten intolerant people have proper knowledge about the differences between gluten-free foods and those produced, prepared, and processed to reduce their gluten level.

Gluten-Free Grains And Their Benefits

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Wheat flour’s gluten component is principally responsible for its distinctive qualities. Gluten possesses unrivaled network-forming properties, which are critical for products created with hard wheat varieties that require an intermediate cohesive dough stage in producing process. Bread, pasta, and pretzels are examples of such goods. Gliadin is a 70 percent ethanol-soluble protein component of wheat flour primarily found as monomeric proteins in wheat grain extracts. On the other hand, glutenin is a protein fraction that cannot have extracted using water, dilute salt solutions, or 70% ethanol and is also known as polymeric gluten. 

Gluten-Free Grains And Their Replacement Strategies

Without gluten, bread baking is essentially devoid of the essential element for product structure and quality. Bakers and cereal researchers have a significant difficulty as a result of this. Furthermore, persons who have had the opportunity to experience gluten-containing foods frequently consume gluten-free items. As a result, these customers have already imprinted product expectations regarding texture, structure, flavor, and overall quality. Gluten-free bread products must not only have the same texture as gluten-containing bread products, but they must also have the same sensory profile and shelf life.

Gluten-Free Grains And Their Ingredients

A variety of essential ingredients and additives were used to mimic the cohesion and flexibility of a gluten-containing dough. Starches, gluten-free cereal/pseudocereal flours, hydrocolloids, and proteins are examples of gluten-replacing substances. Enzymes and emulsifiers are minor components added to assist form and strengthen the gluten-free dough and bread structure. Combinations of these are frequently employed to improve the rheological qualities of gluten-free products.

Conclusion

Some researchers have also spent time and effort developing wheat types with reduced gliadin levels. In general, gluten-free bread recipe changes, unfortunately often increase in the product price. Gluten-free grains have also been employed as foundation components in addition to starch. Pseudocereal flours, such as amaranth, buckwheat, chia, and quinoa, as well as gluten-free cereal flours, such as sorghum, rice, corn, teff, and millet, are examples.

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